OSI Model

The 7 Layers

To perform network basics (port forwarding, NAT, packet filtering firewalls, etc) it is important to have a good understanding of the first 3 network layers. As a network adminsitrator, it is these layers that the equipment you deal with operate.

1. Physical
2. Link (Data Link)
3. Network
4. Transport
5. Session
6. Presentation
7. Application

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blogging in malayalam

I started this blog and decided to put in a malayalam blogging section in this one.  So inorder to start writing in malayalam, I had to do compose in malayalam.  I knew that there is a software which allows to write in “manglish” which will convert the english directly to malayalam. However my search for it ended at the google transliteration software.

http://www.google.com/transliterate/indic/Malayalam

What we have to do is

1) write the content in the google Transliteration software.

2) then copy-paste the same to the post.

I did the same, but was presented with garbled characters on the post. To be more specific, the characters were not displayed in malayalam, but instead a lot of I mean, a lot of question marks were at its place.  So I started my hunt again in my trusted friend, google. After a long search, I was able to find that the reason for this is due to the encoding used. So I tried changing the encoding format of my brower(firefox). View>Character Encoding.

Tried various encodings to no good. So again after an extensive search, I found that the mysql DB is the culprit. The trouble occured due to the fact that the default collation for the mysql db is latin1. So I have to change the collation to utf-8 encoding which is supposed to support the indic laguages(ie including malayalam). Instead of doing each of the tables manually using phpmyadmin, I used the following php code snippet to change the collation.

Use the below php code to make the character set of mysql db to be utf8_general_ci

<?php
$dbname = ‘dbname’;
mysql_connect(‘127.0.0.1’, ‘username’, ‘pass’);
mysql_query(“ALTER DATABASE `$dbname` DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_general_ci”);
$res = mysql_query(“SHOW TABLES FROM `$dbname`”);
while($row = mysql_fetch_row($res)) {
$query = “ALTER TABLE {$dbname}.`{$row[0]}` CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_general_ci”;
mysql_query($query);
$query = “ALTER TABLE {$dbname}.`{$row[0]}` DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_general_ci”;
mysql_query($query);
}
echo ‘all tables converted’;
php?>

Instead of using the google tranliteration, I got hold of a wordpress plugin for the same. Google Indic Transliteration

Now that the base ground is set, I will be starting my malayalam blog in full blast… Hurray!!!!d.getElementsByTagName(‘head’)[0].appendChild(s);